The Alphabet That Will Save a People From Disappearing

Interesting article at the Atlantic on the creation of a new alphabet for the Fulani language.

Marred by a slight instance of cultural chauvinism: I snorted my milk at the following sentence: "But unlike Arabic, whose short vowels are written as diacritical marks above and below letters, the script assigned its five vowels proper letters." Arabic vowels may be different from Latin vowels; that hardly makes them "improper."

I also learned a useful marketing idea for those creating a new alphabet: Choose a catchy word with no repeating letters; make those letters the first of your alphabet; then take that same word to be the name of your alphabet (just as "alphabet"="Alpha"+"Beta", the first two letters of the Greek alphabet). Such is the case with "Adlam", the new alphabet described here.

Starting up a New Language: Some Case Studies

Photo by Ryan Buterbaugh 

How best to tackle a new language depends on many factors:

1. How difficult do you expect it to be?

2. Is a new script involved?

3. What's your immediate goal? Your ultimate goal?

4. What tools are available?

5. How much time do you have available?

Herewith some examples of how I chose to attack some new languages.

Swahili. (First of all, my answers to the questions above: 1: easy. 2: no. 3: just want to make incremental progress. 4: fair number of courses and books available. 5: almost none.)

The approach: I use the Language/30 Swahili course and an old edition of Teach Yourself Swahili, which gives a bare-bones presentation of grammar and vocabulary.  I use Audacity to clip audio sentences from the Language/30 course and put the sentences with text into Anki flashcards. I create additional cards with words and sentences from the Teach Yourself book. The Teach Yourself cards have no audio, unless and until I find a good source for ad-hoc Swahili audio.

But Swahili pronunciation is pretty easy. The Language/30 samples should provide ample pronunciation practice, as well as providing a storehouse of useful sentences "in the bank." So far, at the rate of one new card per day (one new word or sentence every two or three days) it takes less than a minute a day, plus occasional prep time to create new cards.

Thai. (1: moderate to difficult. 2: yes. 3: just want to make incremental progress. 4: fair number of courses and books available. 5: very little.)

The approach. First I designed some mnemonics to help me memorize the Thai alphabet. I spent about a minute a day for some months just practicing the letters. I made Anki cards from the first few reading lessons of the Thai Pimsleur course, mostly just nonsense syllables, but it helped me get a foothold on reading. I continued with the Teach Yourself Thai book (with accompanying CD's--some form of audio companion is a huge advantage). Sample sentences from the book go onto flashcards, while I download audio for individual words from Google translate. (Note: I don't do this for Swahili because Google Translate's Swahili voice is a weird robot which I have no desire to emulate.) I also picked up Stu Jay Raj's unusual book Cracking Thai Fundamentals and started reading through it and making flash cards as necessary (it has less memory-intensive content). And by dint of some effort, I devised a streamlined formulation of the rules for determining tones from the Thai script.

Generally speaking, for each word, phrase, or sentence I have as many as five cards:

(1 "English to Thai") Input: English. Output: Thai audio.
(2 "Reading") Input: Thai script. Output: English and incidentally Thai audio.
(3 "Listening") Input: Thai audio. Output: English and incidentally Thai script.
(4 "Spelling") Input: English and Thai audio. Output: Thai script.

In line with a principle that good flash cards should expect a single response, the term "incidentally" here indicates that the card presents the information as part of the response but I need not reproduce it as a "correct" response.

Only a few cards are of type 4. I am ramping up gradually to writing Thai. I use conditional compilation for Anki to generate these cards only when I specify.

On the other hand, I like the daily exposure to reading Thai.

I currently spend about four minutes a day working through my Thai Anki deck, adding new cards from the Teach Yourself book, Cracking Thai Fundamentals, or occasionally the Pimsleur reading lessons as necessary.

Starting up Khmer and Burmese was very similar, the main difference being a relative paucity of available resources.

Sumerian. (1: moderate. 2: yes. 3: finish Hayes book [see below]. 4. Chiefly books. 5. very little [see a trend here?])

Sumerian is a dead language, which entails both advantages and disadvantages.


(1) You need not be concerned about acquiring a perfect accent. For most dead languages, scholars are happy to inform you about the pronunciation with considerable detail and subtlety, but I'm always a little skeptical that they know quite as much as they think they do. Whether or not they really know what they're talking about, there's no harm in making things easy on yourself. This does not mean pronunciation can be ignored. I have yet to come across a writing system in which sound does not play some partial role at least. In the case of Sumerian, the writing is a combination of ideographic and phonetic symbols. Many words and phrases have alternate spellings. Having a crude idea of the pronunciation makes it much easier to recognize these.

(2) Likewise, you may choose to (or be forced to) downplay skills of writing and listening in favor of reading. Focusing on just one of the four standard language skills certainly simplifies matters.

For Sumerian, I depended on a single resource: John Hayes' book A Manual of Sumerian Grammar and TextsIncidentally I see the hardcover edition of the book is now going for $4000. which makes me feel strangely wealthy. The book provides many samples of Sumerian texts, with vocabulary lists and extensive discussions of each.

Sumerian is written in a cuneiform script, which my computer does not support. Certainly the computer would not reproduce the variety of sizes and shapes of the historical texts. Here Anki's ability to handle images facilitates greatly. By scanning a page, and clipping out samples of text, I can reproduce any word or phrase from the book.

Generally I use two Anki cards for each item of Sumerian text:

(1 "Reading") Input: Sumerian text. Output: the transliteration (phonetic reading) of the text.
(2 "English") Input: Sumerian text and transliteration. Output: the English translation.

I also use Anki Cloze cards for grammar rules, historical facts, etc.

This approach lets me work through at a steady (if slow) pace, while committing to heart the memorization-related content and reading some phrases of text (while reviewing Anki cards) every day.

"Nude" and "Flesh" Are Not Colors

A photo posted by Chyrstyn Mariah Fentroy (@chyrstynmariah) on

In the "institutional/pervasive racism" category for today, note the photo above, courtesy of Chyrstyn Mariah Fentroy, who, based on the evidence of the photo above: (1) is a ballet dancer, and (2) has a richly-hued complexion. The story told by the photo is that apparently it is impossible to buy ballet slippers in any color other than off-white. If your natural skin shade is something other than off-white, then you are doomed to hand-paint every new pair of ballet slippers that you buy. (Apparently ballet slippers that contrast with your skin are taboo.)

I sympathize with all ballet dancers who have to deal with this. It is something of a burden to have to do this all the time. More important the situation sends a message that you're the wrong color to be doing this. Sure, you can shrug it off, but at some point everyone experiences shrug fatigue.

I learned of this particular issue thanks to a Huffington Post article by Katherine Brooks.  Ms. Brooks is a serious contender for the Lack of Self-Awareness Awards. Note how the article becomes incomprehensible halfway through thanks to the profligate use of the term "flesh tone." What does this mean? Is it the pale peach one finds in a box of crayons? I literally could not follow the sense of the article once the term "flesh tone" is bandied about with reference to a diverse cast of characters.

Why are people still talking about "flesh tone"? I learned back in 1975 that this was uncool:

Marilyn Goes to Poland!

Marek P. has translated the Marilyn Method for memorizing the pronunciation of Chinese characters into Polish for his site Zyskiwanie Przewagi.

More Arabic Mnemonics

This is a companion to my earlier post on mnemonics for Arabic roots. An interesting feature of Arabic is that most words can be decomposed into a root and a pattern. The root consists strictly of consonants (usually three), while the pattern consists of vowels plus possible additional consonants.

In English we can see something of how this works by considering the words sing, sang, sung, song, singer. We could think of these composed of an underlying root s-ng overlaid on various patterns 1i2, 1a2, 1u2, 1o2, 1i2er.

We could combine some of these patterns with a different root dr-k to yield new words: drink, drank, drunk, drinker (but no dronk, unfortunately).

To repeat my earlier example, in Arabic, there is a root ك ت ب (k-t-b) which has to do generally with writing. Some of the words formed from this root by fitting it into different patterns would be:

كَتَبَ (kataba = k-t-b × 1a2a3a) "he wrote"
كِتَاب (kitaab = k-t-b × 1i2aa3) "book"
مَكْتَبَة (maktaba = k-t-b × ma12a3a) "library"

Most (not all) Arabic roots consist of exactly three consonants. The earlier post described a fairly complicated method for encoding these three consonants in an English word of phrase. This is not so simple because Arabic distinguishes many consonant sounds which English doesn't.

To be honest, the previous method is a sledgehammer, really important only for the most stubborn cases. Many roots (like the forementioned k-t-b) can stick in the mind with modest effortespecially if you remember just one of the derived words (such as "book").

In putting this method into practice, I realized that the puzzle needed another piecean idea I borrowed from Heisig's method for Chinese characters. This extra piece is an English name for the root, analogous to Heisig's keywords. In the case of Arabic, I don't call this name a "keyword" but rather a "syndrome." For example, the syndrome for the forementioned k-t-b root is "write."

One-by-one I peruse my Arabic dictionary (which groups together words sharing the same root), and do my best to choose an English syndrome which comes closest to capturing the spectrum of meanings associated with the root. I don't do this for every Arabic word I encounter, but only for those that I find particularly hard to remember.

For example, one pair of words that gave me trouble was:

طابِق (Taabiq), plural طَوابِق (Tawaabiq): a floor or story of a building, versus:طَبَق (Tabaq), plural أطباق ('aTbaaq): a dish or course of a meal.

Both share the root طبق (T-b-q), but I could see scant connection in the meanings. But perusing the various words associated with this root, it seems most are related to the idea of one thing on top of another. The floors of a building are arranged this way, as is the lid for a dish. The idea of a "dish" of a meal seems to be derived from the latter. I therefore chose the word "superpose" as the syndrome for the T-b-q root.

Here's a list of some of the syndromes I have selected thus far, along with a sample word for each.

هجر (h-j-r)
هاجَرَ haajara (migrated)
فصل (f-S-l)
فَصْل faSl (to dismiss, fire)
شرف (sh-r-f)
يُشْرِف yushrif (supervises)
حدد (H-d-d)
حّدِيِد Hadiid (iron)
fan out
نشر (n-sh-r)
نَشَرَ nashara (published)
خول (kh-w-l)
أَخْوال 'akhwaal (maternal uncles)

This leaves the issue of the pattern. How do I remember that طابِق (Taabiq) is a building story and طَبَق (Tabaq) is a dish rather than vice-versa? (This particular pair was a real issue for me.) These words have the same roots but different patterns. The Arabic grammarians had the clever idea of using the root فعل (f-`-l) "do" as a "neutral" root. They then described a given pattern by applying it to this "neutral" root. For طابِق (Taabiq), the pattern of vowels is (_aa_i_). For طَبَق (Tabaq), the pattern of vowels is (_a_a_). The Arabic terms for these patterns would be فّاعِل (faa`il) and فَعَل (fa`al), respectively.  

For the most part I handle this with a very simple device (also highly adaptable to many other situations). For a given pattern, I choose just one example of the pattern to use as a mnemonic hook for the pattern itself. For example consider the two patterns just mentioned: _aa_i_ and _a_a_. The former also appears in the word هاتِف haatif "telephone" and the latter in the word بَصَل baSal "onions". I use these words to represent their associated patterns. Thus the word طابِق (Taabiq) is broken down into superpose × telephone (root × pattern) while طَبَق (Tabaq) is broken down into superpose × onions. And my trouble in keeping this straight is resolved by creating whatever mental images serve to associate telephone with story of a building and onions with dish

In choosing a keyword to represent a given pattern, I try to choose something concrete, visualizable, and as distinct as possible from other keywords.

Here's a list of patterns and their associated keywords. Both this and the previous list are works in progress. I add words as I find I need them.

عَباءة `abaa'ah wool cloak
فَعَالَة _a_aa_ah
مُدُن  mudun towns
فُعُل _u_u_
صَحْن SaHn plate
فَعْل _a__
فُلُوس fuluus money
فُعُول _u_uu_
بِدَل bidal suits
فِعَل _i_a_
أَرْجُل 'arjul legs
أَفْعُل ’a__u_
مَسْرَح masraH theater
مَفْعَل ma__a_
بَصَل baSal onion
فَعَل _a_a_
قُفَّاز quffaaz gloves
فُعَّال _u_2aa_ (2 indicates double vowel)
رِسالة risaalah letter
فِعَالَة _i_aa_ah
سِجْن sijn jail
فِعْل _i__
خَلِيج khaliij gulf
فَعِيل _a_ii_
أَنْهَار 'anhaar rivers
أَفْعَال ’a__aa_
سَتائِر sataa'ir curtains
فَعَائِل _a_aa’i_
رِياح riyaaH winds
فِعَال _i_aa_
قُفْل qufl lock
فُعْل _u__
مَنْزِل manzil house
مَفْعِل ma__i_
فَواكِه fawaakih fruits
فَواعِل _awaa_i_
عَرُوس `aruus bride
فَعُول _a_uu_
هاتِف haatif telephone
فَاعِل _aa_i_

A couple more examples: طَوابِق (Tawaabiq), plural of طابِق (Taabiq), breaks down into superpose × fruits (T-b-q  × _awaa_i_), whereas أطباق ('aTbaaq), plural of طَبَق (Tabaq), breaks down into superpose × rivers (T-b-q × 'a__a_).

The Arabic verb forms get special treatment. Each verb form is a coordinated set of patterns describing the various verb forms. These are numbered from one I through ten X. Thus for a Form-IV verb, you know not only that the past-tense pattern is i__aa_a, but the present-tense pattern is yu__i_.  More information is available in an Arabic grammar book or various places on the Internet.

For the verb forms, rather than the example method I use for other patterns, I chose a code word for each form from II through X:

Form II
Form III
maiko, or mikado
Form IV
Form V
Form VI
Form VII
Form IX
Form X

I was guided by the Major system in choosing the code words, but that is not really important. Almost any set of visualizable code words works just as well once committed to memory. I also chose words with Japanese connotations. You might wonder why. Why not choose words with Arabic connotations—
sultan rather than sushi, for example? The reason is that sultan may well turn out to be a specific vocabulary item to be memorized. Using the same word as a code word creates a minor possibility for confusion. 

You notice also that I have two different code words for Form III. This is to distinguish the two versions of Form III that have different patterns for the "verbal noun". Maiko is used for those verbs with a verbal noun of pattern مُفَاعَلة (mu_aa_a_ah). Mikado is used for those verbs with a verbal noun of pattern فَعَالٌ (_a_aa_).

Form I presents a more complicated situation. Any of the three Arabic vowels a, i, u may appear in the past-tense form, and any of the three may also appear in the present-tense form (although not all combinations appear). The Form I code words are chosen to describe these vowels as well:

tatoo: past a, non-past u
taxi: past a, non-past i
tatami: past a, non-past a
titan: past i, non-past a
tutu: past u, non-past u

(BTW in researching this post I learned that there are actually fifteen verb forms, but forms XI to XV are extremely rare. The system is easy to extend in any case.)

"We’re no longer a country that believes in human agency, and as a formerly poor person, I find it incredibly insulting."

From a fascinating interview with J. D. Vance at the American Conservative. (Jump to no conclusions based on the word "conservative.") Vance is one of too few who notice the dark side of the "Don't blame the victim" principle.

Imagine someone you know is a victim of violence, harassment, or other injustice. Being a nice person, you want to help. So you address the person as follows:

1. What is happening to you is unfair.

2. It is not your fault.

3. We should not blame the victim.

4. I must therefore assume you have no power and no responsibility in this situation.

5. So be passive.

6. Let those of us who have agency fix this for you.

Clearly something has gone wrong from Step 1 to Step 6. Sympathy has morphed into contempt.

Vance also has a highly-rated memoir out (which I have yet to read).

The Irony/Sincerity Gap Strikes Again

As previously noted here and here. Compare the American and Japanese trailers for Disney's upcoming Moana:

Note how the American trailer emphasizes humor while the Japanese trailer plays up sentiment.

Spelling Thai Tones, Simplified

What has the Scottish flag to do with tones in Thai? Read on.

In my extremely leisurely study of Thai, I have reached the point of wanting to learn the rules for expressing the tones in writing. Thai being a tonal language, each Thai syllable takes one of five possible tones. The written language does describe the tones unambiguously, according to arcane and seemingly sadistic rules.

(I indulge my curmudgeonly side here. I well appreciate that an English word like “fraught”—questions like what it means, why it is spelled that way, and what the equivalent present-tense verb is, for example—must be just as frustrating to the foreign-language student.)

In Thai, a given syllable’s tone is affected by several factors (all to be explained later on):

1. The “color” of the consonant—red, black, or blue. (“Color” is my term for these categories, which are generally called high, middle, or low class. Below I explain why the standard names are the worst possible descriptions of these categories.)

2. The type of syllable—“live”, “dead short”, or “dead long”.

3. One of four tone markers:  ,  ,  ,  . Or a syllable may have no marker, which as a mathematician I want to consider as a fifth “zero marker.”

So the total number of combinations amounts to 3×3×5 = 45.  Each of these combinations indicates one of the five tones. The trick is to remember which tone goes with each of the 45 syllable configurations. And at first glance, it’s pretty random. Okay, in practice some of these don’t occur, but there are still a lot of cases to distinguish. See, for example this helpful table from Wikipedia, with a mere 17 cases to memorize. The Wikipedia article uses a table, and a diagram and a flowchart to explain it, and I still think it’s pretty complicated.
After about a day of staring at the table rightway-round, upside-down, and inside-out, I think I’ve managed to pull out the essence. It comes down to just seven short rules, five rules for unmarked syllables and two for marked syllables.

Tones for unmarked syllables

Here are the rules for unmarked syllables:

Lions walk, but….
Red lions rise.
Dogs crawl, but….
Long blue dogs fall.
And short blue dogs fly.

Perhaps some explanation is in order…

First, the five tones themselves. These have descriptive names: mid, low, falling, high, and rising. I won’t be going into much detail on the tones as such; see this Wikipedia diagram for a graphic representation, or this nice video from Benny Lewis. As names go, these are pretty good, each being a rough description of the corresponding tone contour.

But for our purposes, it will be more useful to describe the tones with verbs than with adjectives. Falling and rising are already verbs. The other three tones get new names:


I presume these are self-explanatory.

Now to the “colors.” Thai consonants come in three categories, the main function of which appears to be giving clues as to tones. For example, we could think of ข and ค as two different versions of “K”, which impart different tones (not always the same) to the syllables they head. For example, ขา is pronounced something like “kah” with a mid tone and คา is pronounced exactly the same, except with a rising tone. Again, the “color” of the consonant is merely one of several factors determining the tone of the syllable.
Traditionally these three categories are called “high”, “mid”, and “low.” (Note that in the Wikipedia table, these are the headings of the three columns.) As mentioned before, these are in fact the worst possible names for the three categories. First of all, as “high”, “mid” and “low” are already used as names for three of the five tones, describing consonants by the same terms is a recipe for confusion. The exception would be if, for example, a “high” consonant always gave a syllable the “high” tone for example, but such is not the case. Check the “high” column of the table again. Note that the “high” tone is the only one which cannot occur with a “high” consonant. Similarly for “low” tones and “low” consonants.
So I’m dropping the “high”, “mid”, “low” terminology and using colors instead. Previously I used vowel sounds to help remember the consonant class. So-called “high” class consonants are given names with vowels E and I, so from now on I call these “rEd” consonants. So-called “low” class consonants are given names with vowels O and U, so from now on I call these “blUe” consonants. And so-called “mid” class consonants are given names with the vowels A, so from now on I call these “blAck” consonants. (It just happens that the “red” consonant column of the Wikipedia table is shaded red, and the “blue” column is shaded blue. Huh, fate.) For the record:

The blue consonants are: งณนมญยรลฬวคฅฆชฌฑฒทธพภฟซฮ
The red consonants are: ขฃฉฐถผฝศษส
The black consonants are:กจดฎฏตบปอ

And finally, the tone is affected by syllable type. “Live” syllables are distinguished from “dead.” The former end in a vowel or a “sonorant” (like M, N, etc.). The latter end in a “plosive” (like “K”. “T”, etc.). In short, if you can imaging singing the syllable, stretching it out indefinitely (like “Caaaaaaaannnnnnnn…”) then it’s a live syllable. If not (like “Caaaaaaat”—once you hit the “t” you are done) then it’s a dead syllable.
Among live syllables, it also makes a difference whether the vowel of the syllable is long or short.
For our purposes it will be more useful to describe syllable types with nouns. So live syllables are “lions” and dead syllables are “dogs.” (Live like a lion, or die like a dog.)
This is all the background needed for our five rules. To summarize:
Colors represent consonant classes.
Verbs (of motion) represent tones.
Animals represent syllable types.
Now let’s revisit our five rules for unmarked syllables.

Lions walk, but…. In other words, a live syllable gets a mid tone, with the exception that…

Red lions rise. A live syllable with a high-class consonant gets a rising tone.

Dogs crawl, but.… A dead syllable gets a low tone, with the exception that…

Long blue dogs fall. A long dead syllable with a low-class consonant gets a falling tone.

And short blue dogs fly. A short dead syllable with a low-class consonant gets a high tone.

That’s it. These five rules encompass all the information in the top three rows of the Wikipedia table. It can’t really get better than this, because you need at least one rule for each tone.

Tones for marked syllables.

Who invented the Thai script? It would have been so easy just to let a syllable’s tone be specified by the tone mark. And we could dispense with almost half the Thai alphabet. Oh, well….

We give each of the tone marks a name based on the tone it describes in most cases:


We then just need rules to handle the exceptions. Looking at the bottom four rows of the Wikipedia table, we see that syllable type (lion versus dog) is irrelevant. We also see that red and black syllables are always the same, except for the blank areas (which represent situations that never occur—so we need not worry about them). The only exceptions concern blue syllables. We use “bluejay” to represent such a syllable—dead or alive, but starting with a blue consonant.
Just two rules for two exceptions:
Crawling bluejays fall. (In other words, a syllable with a blue consonant and marked with ่ (crawl) gets a falling tone.
Falling bluejays fly. (In other words, a syllable with a blue consonant and marked with   (fall) gets a rising tone.

Did I say seven rules?

It turns out there are two loopholes described in the comments following the Wikipedia table. Both concern a consonant changing its color under certain conditions.
In the first case any of the consonants งญนมวยรล, which are normally blue, change to red when they follow an unadorned red or black consonant or a silent letter ห (H). These particular blue consonants have no red equivalents (for example, ญ and น are both blue “N”, but the Thai alphabet has no red “N”), so you can think of this as a way of improvising a red consonant.
In the second case, the letter ย, which is normally blue, changes to black when it is prefixed by อ. This rule is limited to four words which start with the sequence อย: อยาก, อย่า, อย่าง, and อยู่. It turns out all four words come out with low tones, the first because “(Black) dogs crawl”; the other three because they carry the “crawling” marker.

See also:

Learn the Thai Alphabet in One Hour  

...And Learn the Thai Vowels

Rome 2016

(click on any image for a larger version)

This being my second visit to Rome in three years, I had the opportunity to catch up on some sights I had missed the first time around. Herewith, as usual, some random observations:

(Above and below) sculpture groups at the Altare della Patria.

You of course know the story of the magically animated wooden puppet carved by Gepetto. It turns out this was only Phase I of his plan. In Phase II, the puppets are put to work in sweatshops carving more puppets to form an exponentially increasing army of frolicking puppets. I have some concern as to how Phase III will turn out:

Playfulness in architecture. I like the variety of structures employed on the corner of this building.

And more playfulness...

Humdrum view of the Roman forum:

The Palazzo dei Conservatori, housing part of the Capitoline Museum, is decorated with frescoes, many showing the Battle of... well I don't know what battle it was, but I expect the Romans won. The artist was particularly fond of depicting decapitations, etc., and in this little detail, the best classical painting I have seen showing a head squashed by the hoof of a horse:

More stuff in the Capitoline Museum:

I have never been interested in spectator sports. I simply lack the fandom spark. But I think I might make an exception for baby-fish wrestling:

Panorama of St. Peter's basilica:

Uncharacteristically Italian neatness in parking:

Pantheon, illuminated by the oculus in the center of the dome:

And now a side trip to Tivoli. The gardens at the Villa d'Este with their fountains are not to be missed. We all agreed they are far more beautiful (though less extensive) than the gardens at Versailles. I wish I knew whose inspiration it was to use the sloping site to power a thousand fountains by gravity. 

One of the thousand: 

Detail from another fountain. I don't know whether these snake people come from mythology or are merely a fancy of the artist.

And the villa building:

Inside the villa, a piece of trompe-l'oeil. In other words, the door you see is not real but painted on the wall, Road-Runner style. Such touches abound in the villa.

Also in Tivoli are the ruins of the villa belonging to Emperor Hadrian. The weather had turned moody and atmospheric by the time we reached the villa:

I hadn't realized it until pointed out by a tour guide, but this scrap of ruined floor indicates the scope of the Roman empire. The various colors of marble—rose, white, green—all come from different lands at different points of the compass.

Meanwhile, back in Rome, birds are resting in the Forum:

(Literal) high fashion on the Via dei Condotti:

View from the roof of our hotel:

Also on the roof:

I hope you enjoyed your visit to Rome!